Kerala has 145,704 km of roads (4.2% of India's total). This translates to about 4.62 km of road per thousand population, compared to an all India average of 2.59 km. Virtually all of Kerala's villages are connected by road. Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Kerala's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. India's national highway network includes a Kerala wide total of 1,524 km, which is 2.6% of the national total. There are eight designated national highways in the state. Upgrading and maintenance of 1,600 km of Kerala state highways and major district roads have been taken up by the Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS). Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two national highways, NH 47, and NH 17.
The state has major international airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode that link the state with the rest of the nation and the world. The Cochin International Airport at Kochi is the first international airport in India to be built without Central Government funds. The backwaters traversing the state are an important mode of inland navigation. The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs throughout the state, connecting all major towns and cities except the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. Kerala's major railway stations are Trivandrum Central, Kollam Junction, Ernakulam Junction, Thrissur, Kozhikode, Shoranur Junction, and Palakkad.